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          The goal of UNDP  project is to conduct a large-scale and comprehensive review of the public transport sector in Kazakhstan with a focus on urban transport. The analysis is based on previous work on the sustainable urban transport development strategy for 2013–2023 for Almaty, as well as subsequent proposals for amendments to the legislation that could facilitate decision-making and improve funding opportunities for improving the infrastructure of urban transport. The designation “urban public transport” is used in the report to describe the systems and their facilities, including facilities and equipment (both mobile and stationary) for the implementation of the necessary urban passenger traffic. They include road and rail modes of transport available in different parts of the cities (buses, trolley buses, subways, light rail), as well as pedestrian and bicycle modes of movement. From the point of view of a complete transport system, private cars were included in the approach, as they also share the road space. A broader definition includes parking management schemes, bicycle road networks and parking facilities, pedestrian safety and related guidance. The level of development of public transport directly affects the options for the development of urban mobility, which are and depend on the availability of a developed infrastructure, a sustainable transport system, the level of organization and management of public transport, a high level of quality and safety of transport systems.

          The prepared report of ETC Transport Consultants GmbH with BDC Consulting includes the results of a comprehensive analysis, as well as recommendations prepared for improving the public transport sector and the corresponding sector development strategy based on international experience and current practice in Kazakhstan. These recommendations are aimed at improving the legislative, regulatory and institutional frameworks, as well as building capacity to promote the development of sustainable public transport and reduce emissions of harmful substances from traffic in Kazakhstan.


          The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development project covered assistance in reforming the regulatory framework of the bus service system for the population in order to raise the standards of the public bus service system in the city by introducing a new bidding regime, which made it possible to equalize the conditions of activity in terms of generating income for all operators. Within the framework of the Project, a competition was held and the corresponding Public Service Agreement was signed and a comprehensive system for automated accounting of ticket sales was created.

          The project also procured 100 new buses operating on compressed natural gas (CNG) that meet Euro 4 – 6 standards.

          The project contributes to improving the quality of the environment in the city of Kyzylorda, will reduce the number of passengers and, in general, improve the quality and efficiency of urban transport.

          Besides, assistance was provided to the Akimat of Kyzylorda in the acquisition of buses operating on CNG; assistance in the construction of a new depot, a new CNG filling station, the creation of a new automated ticket sales system and the production of necessary purchases, as well as monitoring of these operations; development of a program for building up organizational capacity for the Company, including assisting in the formation of the organizational structure and definition of functions, as well as in the creation of management and accounting systems; assistance in transferring a number of functions, such as maintenance, etc., to the private sector, as well as additional support in the implementation of the official automated ticket sales system.

          ETC TRANSPORT CONSULTANTS GMBH, GERMANY and BDC Consulting provided consulting services on the environmental and social integrated survey project, which includes an analysis of the environmental management systems, facilities and operations of the Kyzylorda Bus Depot, which provides passenger transportation services, as well as planned priority investments for their compliance with the requirements for the implementation of EBRD projects. In order to eliminate any environmental and social problems identified during a comprehensive survey, an Environmental and Social Action Plan (ESAP) has been developed that will allow achieving compliance with international technical regulations within a reasonable time.


          Aktau Airport  has increased the flow of domestic and international flights. The annual growth of passenger traffic today is on average 30%. The capacity has increased and the opportunity to receive aircraft of any type has emerged, which implies the involvement of international air carriers. At the same time, the airport administration notes that in the future it is planned to build a logistics park here. But this is only one of the possibilities. Today, Aktau Airport ranks third in Kazakhstan in terms of the number and volume of traffic after Almaty and Nursultan Nazarbayev airports. It serves more than two dozen domestic and foreign airlines. The strategically advantageous location of the city of Aktau creates significant competitive advantages in participating in the North-South transport corridor serving transit cargo flows from the countries of the Persian Gulf.

          The Development Bank of Kazakhstan is one of the main financial development institutions operating in the country, and it also has projects in its portfolio, illustrating the peculiarities of the work of such credit organizations with the borrower. The case of issuing a loan to Aktau International Airport, which lasted three years, is indicative. In the case of the airport, a separate business task was the development of a technical passport of the project, since it required the adoption of complex engineering solutions. Kazakhstan Development Bank (KDB), as the main creditor, carried out thorough monitoring at each stage of the works. The bank notes that a lot of time and effort was spent just at the preparatory stage. “Certificates of conformity and technical specification of purchased materials and equipment, the level of staff qualifications, elimination of comments from the relevant departments – credit analysts of the bank examined thoroughly all nuances and details of the project. In the implementation of such a large-scale and technically complex project there are no trifles. Meantime, as it became clear already at the implementation stage, such a thorough approach at the zero stage made it possible to minimize many risks and continue to move within the established deadlines. The bank made comments on the technical and legal part, demanded more detailed study of the expenditure part and future income, and so on. As a result, it was possible not only to detail the entire project and the process of its implementation well, but also to eliminate the existing shortcomings. This ensured that the reconstruction would be carried out without any failures. In particular, the specialized consulting company, COWI RU (Russia) and BDC Consulting KZ were involved in monitoring and managing the costs of the project on the advice of KDB.