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  • Solid Waste Management



        The cities of Ust-Kamenogorsk (335 thousand people) and Semey (344 thousand people) (the “Cities”) are the two largest cities in the East-Kazakhstan Oblast, with the former being the region’s capital. Together the Cities are home to about 50 per cent of the region’s population. Proper utilisation and treatment of waste is becoming very important, as each city generates around 100,000 tonnes of waste per year.  The landfills in the Cities have been in operation since the 1960s with no significant modernisation. Moreover, these sites are working at or near maximum capacity and approaching the end of their lifetime. Closure of the existing sites and construction of new sanitary landfills complying with the country’s Ecological Code and best international standards (including the EU Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste) must be undertaken to deal with the pressing environmental concerns.

        Significant improvements to the solid waste management (“SWM”) system are also strongly required. Currently, the generated municipal solid waste (“MSW”) is not collected separately from households and is simply dumped at landfills. However, from January 2019, Kazakhstan’s Ecological Code will stipulate that valuable materials (recyclables) such as paper, glass, and plastics should be separately collected and recycled. Therefore the introduction of sorting and processing facilities is the top priority for the Cities.

        In light of the above, the Akimat of Eastern Kazakhstan Oblast (the “Oblast Akimat”), the Akimat of Ust-Kamenogorsk City (the “Ust-Kamenogorsk City Akimat”), the Akimat of Semey City (the “Semey City Akimat”) have approached the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the “Bank” or the “EBRD”) with a request to assess the possibility of financing modernization of the SWM systems in the city of Ust-Kamenogorsk and the city of Semey (separately for each of the Cities – the “Project”). It is expected that the EBRD finance will be provided in form of a loan to (i) a municipal company fully owned by the Ust-Kamenogorsk City Akimat for implementation of the Project in the city of Ust-Kamenogorsk and (b) a municipal company fully owned by the Semey City Akimat for implementation of the Project in the city of Semey (hereinafter “the Company” means a municipal company in either the city of Ust-Kamenogorsk or the city of Semey as appropriate).

        The Bank contracted GWCC-INTERIVAL ZT GmbH (Austria) and  BDC Consulting KZ to conduct a comprehensive feasibility study (“FS”), to prepare a bankable Project and to develop a priority investment programme (the “PIP”) and evaluate its benefits, including assessing the environmental and social feasibility for each of the Cities (the “Assignment”). are developing a feasibility study and justification of investment projects.


        The government of Kazakhstan   approved the country  program to modernize the solid domestic waste management system (SDW) in twelve main cities of the country  for 2014-205 with aim to enable  this sector attractive for private businesses with the respect to  a green economy principles.

        The issues of modernizing the solid domestic waste management were considered by Prime Minister of Kazakhstan  during the special  meeting  where it  noted that from year to year the volume of solid waste generation in the country is gradually growing. At the same time, at majority of landfills, the  waste is still disposed  without prior sorting and neutralization.

        “Eventually all landfills are at the end of their resources, it is required to carry out work on their recultivation, to collect landfill gas, and also to build new regional engineering landfills. Waste transfer stations are not functioning in the country, where secondary material resources would be extracted, as well as recycling of biodegradable fractions for the production of green energy and compost.”

        Respectively, on the basis of this meeting, a follow-up agreement was signed between the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and JSC Almaty Development Center for the provision of services for the development of a feasibility study for the project “Modernization of solid domestic waste management system in Almaty”.

        BDC Consulting KZ supported COWI RU for teaming a consultancy consortium  to develop for EBRD a bankable  financial model and various project implementation options. Consultants identified the main objectives of the program with consideration that the city population  increase  are covered  by SWM disposal services needs to update containers and garbage trucks  fleet to  ensure a comprehensive timely waste disposal services. It is also proposed to introduce separate collection of biodegradable waste, collection of waste packaging materials, a system for the collection and disposal of hazardous household waste, increase the share of sanitary landfills to 100% by 2050, and also increase the level of waste green energy generation.


        The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development financed a loan of up to US $ 18 million (€ 13 million) to public utility company Koktem, a waste-management nterprise in Aktau, for the purpose of building modern waste processing facilities within the framework of the waste treatment financing mechanism established for Kazakhstan.

        The administration of the Mangystau region has planned the construction of a modern waste processing plant in Aktau. The current methods of waste collecting and recycling are inherited from the Soviet era, when most of the accumulated waste was sent to landfills without sorting. The main advantages of creating a modern waste recycling plant is to increase the level of environmental standards due to:

    (i) reducing waste disposal;

    (ii) reducing CO2 and methane emissions;

    (iii) scaling up reuse and recycling of resources;

    (iv) green power generation.

        Consulting services for the preparation of a feasibility study with a detailed priority investment program were provided by COWI RU (Russia) and BDC Consulting KZ in accordance with national and EU laws in the field of waste collection and recycling, as well as legislation regulating waste collection and recycling activities and specific waste streams. Including the system for the collection and processing of solid waste from the waste sorting enterprise, which allows for the active removal of valuable fractions from the municipal solid waste stream that were previously sent to landfill. At the same time, the volume of the waste sent for final disposal will be reduced by 50-55%. Most of the biodegradable waste fraction will now be sent for anaerobic processing. This advantage will give, in turn, a number of associated benefits, and among other things will lead to the following:

    • reducing the risk of leachate formation at the landfill, and this means a significant reduction in the risk of contamination of soil and groundwater;
    • improving the sanitary condition of the landfill and improving working conditions;
    • a significant reduction in the risk of fires at a landfill, which means improving workers’ safety, mitigating the consequences of harming the population and reducing the threat of excessive emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere;
    • the fact that, in general, the waste disposed of in a landfill will have more inert properties than before.